This was an address given by the Scottish historian Tom Devine in St Paul’s Cathedral, Dunedin. The following is a summary of my notes:

A culture of treating people improperly, described in 1999 as “visceral anti-catholicism. It is perceived that Scotland needs anti-sectarian legislation.

Nineteenth century Irish migration clashed with an establishment represented by Protestantism and the ethos of empire. This migration was focused in area: Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Lothian, Dundee. These people and their descendents have remained an underclass, not achieving material parity with other Scots until the beginning of the twenty-first century. In contrast most other overseas Irish cultures had achieved parity by the 1920s. It did not help that Scotland was an economic back-water for most of the twentieth century outside of the war years.

Without government since the late eighteenth century Protestantism was identity and the primary means of communicating news. The segregation of Irish Catholics was instigated by the Church of Scotland in the 1920s. (Segregation was my term for what Devine described. The Church at the time called for the repatriation of Irish Catholics to Ireland. The Church of Scotland has since apologized for this action.) The Irish in Scotland were scapegoated.

The Scottish brain-drain (my term, significant among New Zealanders). In the 1920s Scottish people stopped looking at emigration from Scotland positively. This does not mean that migrants of Scottish descent returned to Scotland. This makes me wonder how will the emigration of New Zealanders have long-term affect on New Zealand?

The animosity towards this group of Catholics, now indigenous, remains among post-Christian working-class males in the area where Irish Catholics and Protestants settled in Scotland.

The sectarian history of New Zealand has not yet been studied.